Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
Phylogenetic hypothesis based on Hackett et al. (2008).
Traditionally, Pelecaniformes also includes the family Phaethontidae (tropicbirds), which is only distantly related to the other families. Several families included here are traditionally considered to belong to Ciconiiformes: Threskiornithidae, Ardeidae, Balaeniceps, and Scopus (Hackett et al. 2008).
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