Reproduction in Hydroides elegans is sexual and the the sexes are separate (NIMPIS 2002), although some sources (e.g., CSIRO 2001) report the species as hermaphroditic. Gametes are released to the environment and fertilization is external (Nishi 1992). Qiu and Qian (1998) report that most reproductive individuals had tube lengths of 12 mm or more and average fecundity ranged between 1100-9050 oocytes per female.Reproductive seasonality varies by location and has been reported as occurring from late summer to early winter in both hemispheres with some populations in milder climates capable of year-round reproduction (Miura and Kajihara 1984, Udhayakumar and Karande 1996, Lewis and Smith 1991). Qiu and Qian (1998) suggest salinities above 25 ppt and temperatures above 20°C are requisite conditions for reproduction.
- Bagaveeva E.V., and A.Y. Zvyagintsev. 1999. The introduction of polychaetes Hydroides elegans Haswell, Polydora limicola Annenkova, Pseudopotamilla ocelata Moore into the north-western part of the Sea of Japan. Abstract. Paper presented at the First National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions January 24-27, 1999, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
- Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington DC. 467 p.CSIRO 2001. Hydroides sanctaecrucis Marine Pest Information Sheet. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests (CRIMP) Infosheet 15.
- Hove H.A. 1974. Notes on Hydroides elegans (Haswell 1883) and Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel 1923, alien serpulid polychaetes introduced into the Netherlands. Bulletin Zoologisch Museum Universiteit van Amsterdam 4:45-51.
- Imajima M. 1976. Serpulinae (Annelida:Polychaeta) from Japan. I. The genus Hydroides. Bulletin National Science Museum, Series A (Zoology) 2:229-248.
- Kaplan E.H. 1999. A Field Guide to Southeastern and Caribbean Seashores: Cape Hattaras to the Gulf Coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, NY. 425 p.
- Kocak F., and F. Kucuksezgin. 2000. Sessile fouling organisms and environmental parameters in the marinas of the Turkish Aegean coast. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 29:149-157.
- NIMPIS. 2002. Hydroides elegans species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.Qiu J. and P. Qian. 1998. Combined effects of salinity and temperature on juvenile survival, growth and maturation in the polychaete Hydroides elegans. Marine Ecology Progress Series 168:127-134.
- Zibrowius H. 1971 Les especies Mediterraneenes du genre Hydroides (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) remarques sur le pretendu polymorphisme de Hydroides uncinata. Tethys 2:691-746.
- Zibrowius H. 1991. Ongoing modification of the Mediterranean marine fauna and flora by the establishment of exotic species. Mesogee 51:83-107.
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