Frontoclypeus flat or convex. Distance from eye to base of forewing usually greater than half eye width (exceptions: Deiroderes and many Nicomiinae). Pronotum usually produced posteriorly over scutellum (exceptions: Endoiastinae, Nicomiinae, Deiroderes, Abelus, and Hemicentrus), often also with anterior, lateral, or dorsal projections. Scutellum usually concealed and reduced, if visible, posterior apex rounded, acuminate, emarginate, or grooved medially. Forewings with vein M fused with Cu basally (share common stem; exceptions: some Nicomia and some Smiliinae). Prothoracic trochanter and femur not fused. Male abdominal segment IX usually with lateral plates discrete from pygofer (exceptions: fused to pygofer in few members of various tribes; lateral plates absent in Anchistrotus and some Stegaspidini). Female pygofer not strongly produced posteroventrally. Nymph with abdominal tergum IX forming sheath around segment X, anal opening dorsal or posterior.
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