Spawns spring through summer or early fall. May spawn 8 or more times during season; peaks coincide with high spring tides. Eggs hatch only when eggs are inundated, usually on spring tides (in about 7-8 days). Usually sexually mature in 2nd year, some in 1st year (Abraham 1985).
On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, hybrids of F. DIAPHANUS and F. HETEROCLITUS are unisexual diploid gynogens; sperm from males probably is required to stimulate embryogenesis (Dawley et al. 2000).