Spawning males defend territories. Spawns usually mid-July to late October (also reported as August-November). Eggs hatch usually from late December-late February, depending on water temperature (Scott and Crossman 1973). Fry usually migrate downstream April-May. Adults die soon after spawning. Two-year life cycle (with rare exceptions). In the Dungeness River in Washington, there is a unique upriver and early spawning stock and a typical lower river late-spawning stock (see Nehlsen et al. 1991). See Stearley (1992) for a discussion of the historical ecology and life history evolution of Pacific salmons and trouts (Oncorhynchus).