Habitat Type: Freshwater
Comments: Adults spend most of their lives (about 18 months) at sea. Spawning occurs in rivers and tributary streams, in lower tidal areas in some rivers. After juveniles emerge from gravel (in April-May), they immediately move downstream to estuary. Young fish may be found in inshore waters for several months before they move to sea (Scott and Crossman 1973). Introduced population in Great Lakes is unique in completing life cycle entirely in fresh water.
Spawns in gravel of rivers and tributary streams, generally in tidal portion or lower reaches of natal stream (generally within a few kilometers of the sea). Spawning female excavates several redds, or nests, that each may be 3 ft long and 1.5 ft deep in about 1-2 ft of water (Scott and Crossman 1973). Female covers redd after egg deposition.