Comments: Various open situations from tundra, moorlands, steppe, and seacoasts, especially where there are suitable nesting cliffs, to mountains, open forested regions, and human population centers (AOU 1983). When not breeding, occurs in areas where prey concentrate, including farmlands, marshes, lakeshores, river mouths, tidal flats, dunes and beaches, broad river valleys, cities, and airports.
Often nests on ledge or hole on face of rocky cliff or crag. River banks, tundra mounds, open bogs, large stick nests of other species, tree hollows, and man-made structures (e.g., ledges of city buildings) are used locally (Cade 1982). Nests typically are situated on ledges of vertical rocky cliffs, commonly with a sheltering overhang (Palmer 1988, Campbell et al 1990). Tundra populations nests typically on rocky cliffs, bluffs, or dirt banks. Ideal locations include undisturbed areas with a wide view, near water, and close to plentiful prey. Substitute man-made sites include tall buildings, bridges, rock quarries, and raised platforms.
See Grebence and White (1989) for information on nesting along the Colorado River system.