Management Requirements: Suseptible to overharvest (Toweill and Tabor 1982).
See Berg (1982) for information on reintroduction. See Tango et al. (1991) for a review of information on reproduction by reintroduced otters. Sources of otters for reintroductions should be based on documented patterns of genetic variation, which do not concur very well with nominal subspecies delineations (Serfass et al. 1998).
Management Research Needs: Refine techniques for successful reintroduction (e.g., reducing dispersal from reintroduction area).
Biological Research Needs: See element stewardship (ES) files.