Inhabits rivers (Ref. 9987). Maximum age probably exceeds 15 years; the figure of 20 years is not supported by data (Ref. 55930). Eggs are pelagic or semipelagic and hatch while drifting downstream. Larvae feed on zooplankton, then on ostracods and aquatic insects. At about 120 mm SL, juveniles start to feed on small snails and clams; larger juveniles and adults feed almost entirely on molluscs (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on mussels and snails, also on aquatic insects and crustaceans. Under experimentation for aquaculture in the USA (Ref. 4537). Nuptial males have breeding tubercles on head and dorsal fins.