"Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), the largest coral reef management entity in the region, has developed a management plan for the Sanctuary's corals that includes protective activities, such as zoning, channel markings, and restoration efforts.
Restoration activities have included efforts to re-attach Acropora fragments generated by ship groundings and hurricane events; these efforts have had mixed success. Similar efforts to re-attach coral fragments have also been made in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Other restoration efforts have included attempts to culture and settle coral larvae with very limited success. New techniques for restoring Acropora are currently being pursued. Such new techniques involve enhancing sexual recruitment, reestablishing ecological roles within reef systems (e.g. herbivorous urchins), and other methods for controlling predators and disease.
In 1998, the United States Coral Reef Task Force was established by Presidential Executive Order 13089 to coordinate and strengthen efforts for protecting coral reef ecosystems. The Task Force is co-chaired by the Departments of Commerce and Interior, and includes leaders of 12 federal agencies, seven U.S. states and territories, and three freely associated states. In 2002, the Task Force adopted a resolution calling for the development of Local Action Strategies, which are locally-driven plans for collaborative and cooperative action among federal, state, territory, and non-governmental partners to reduce key threats on valuable coral reef resources. Three Local Action Strategies have been developed within the range of elkhorn coral for Florida, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These strategies are underway and will be implemented over a three-year period (FY2005-2007)."
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