Found over sandy and muddy areas of coastal waters, including estuaries. May inhabit oceanic waters. Feeds on benthic animals, fishes, rays, gastropods, and squids (Ref. 5213). Viviparous; litter size 1-14 pups, born during midsummer (Ref. 5485); 56-75 cm at birth (Ref. 2334). Populations are segregated by age. Preferred water tempeatures range from 23 to 27°C. Potentially dangerous but has never been incriminated in any attack on people. Utilized for human consumption, for leather and oil. Marketed fresh, dried-salted and frozen; fins are valued for soup (Ref. 9987).