Southern right whales are characterized by their uniformly dark color and white callosities found on and around the head. Callosities, which are outgrowths of tough skin, are often used in identifying individual whales, as they are unique to each animal, similar to fingerprints in humans. The largest of these excrescences (callosities) is located on the anterior-most portion of the head and is referred to as the "bonnet." Other excrescences are on the upper edge of the lower jaw, behind the blowhole, and above the eye.
Eubalaena australis is on average between 16 and 18 meters long at maturity, males being slightly shorter than females. It has a rotund appearance, a very large girth relative to the length, with an enormous head (approximately 1/3 the body length). Southern right whales do not have any dorsal fins, nor do they have the grooved throat that is typical of the balaenopterids. The flippers are also broad and relatively short.
Another distinguishing physical feature of southern right whales is the blowhole. The exterior of the blow hole is well-partitioned, resulting in a V-shaped exhaust of condensation and water vapor. Furthermore, uncharacteristic of balaenopterids, southern right whales have a well-developed dermis without fat, whereas most balaenopterids lack a dermis (Cummings 1985).
Range mass: 36000 to 73000 kg.
Average mass: 49000 kg.
Range length: 16 to 18 m.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry