Northern fulmars are found throughout the northern Atlantic and Arctic oceans in the northern hemisphere. They occur as far south as Cape Cod, Massachusetts in the western Atlantic, the British Isles in the eastern Atlantic, Japan in the western Pacific and California in the eastern Pacific. There are 3 recognized subspecies: F. g. glacialis in the northernmost Atlantic, F. g. audubonii is found in the lower Arctic of the north Atlantic, and F. g. rodgersii is found in the north Pacific.
Northern fulmars range widely across the Atlantic, with individuals regularly traveling between North America and Britain, including immature individuals. In the western Atlantic, most northern fulmars in 11 large colonies above 65 degrees North latitude in eastern Canada. Additional breeding colonies are found in Greenland, Newfoundland, and Labrador. Concentrations of northern fulmars occur around Newfoundland in early spring and some evidence suggests a general northwards movement in populations between May and July. Fledglings disperse southwards rapidly from breeding colonies in September and October. In winter the majority of northern fulmars occur in offshore waters and are rarely observed.
Biogeographic Regions: arctic ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )
Other Geographic Terms: holarctic
- Huettmann, F., A. Diamond. 2000. Seabird migration in the Canadian northwest Atlantic Ocean: moulting locations and movement patterns of immature birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78: 624-627.
- del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume I. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.