After a succinid snail ingests the worm's eggs, the sporocysts that arise from the miracidia have one of two destinies. Some sporocysts give rise to cercaria and others asexually produce more daughter sporocysts. When a bird ingests the snail, the remaining sporocysts become cercaria, which eventually develop into adults. The adults are monoecious, or hermaphroditic, although they can cross fertilize when in close proximity. The resulting eggs are released by the worms in the rectum and excreted by the bird host along with its feces.
- Erasmus, D. 1972. The Biology of Trematodes. New York: Crane, Russack, & Company.