European bee-eaters are known as ecosystem engineers because of their effects on arid environments through burrowing breeding behavior. Three ways have been suggested regarding how European bee-eaters impact the environment: (i) burrowing and soil removal allows rain, sunlight, and nutrients to penetrate soil. (ii) abandoned burrows provide shelter for other species to colonize the area (iii) deep burrows provide access to invertebrate prey items which can increase food web complexity.
The microclimate that is created by these burrows can be significantly different from the macroclimate. Some species that re-use burrows made by European bee-eaters include European rollers (Coracias garrulus), little owls (Athene noctua), pied wagtails (Motacilla alba), and rock sparrows (Petronia petronia).
Analysis of active European bee-eaters' nests detected several species of mites (chicken mites, tropical fowl mites) and larvae of Diptera, beetles (Tenebrionidae family), and moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera order).
Ecosystem Impact: creates habitat; soil aeration
- Casas-Crivlle, A., F. Valera. 2005. The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) as an ecosystem engineer in arid enviornments. Journal of Arid Enviornments, 60/2: 227-238.