Papio hamadryas is found on the African continent in the area of the southern Red Sea, in Ethiopia, Somalia, and Eritrea. This species also occurs in the Palearctic region, in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The latter populations often occur in close association with humans, and, although considered endemic to the region, were probably introduced there accidentally at some point during the height of the ancient Egyptian Empire.
This species is part of a complex of closely related African baboon species. We have an account of the whole genus under Papio.
Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Introduced , Native ); ethiopian (Native )