Papio hamadryas is omnivorous. They have been known to eat a variety of foods, including, but not limited to: fruits, tree gums, insects, eggs, acacia seeds, acacia flowers, grass seeds, grass, rhizomes, corms, roots tubers, small vertebrates. Because of the aridity of their habitat, these baboons must subsist on whatever edible items they can find.
One feeding adaptation thought to be shared by all baboons is the ability to subsist on a relatively low quality diet. Baboons can subsist on grasses for extended periods of time. This allows them to exploit dry terrestrial habitats, like deserts, semideserts, steppes, and grasslands.
Animal Foods: birds; mammals; reptiles; eggs; carrion ; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods
Plant Foods: leaves; roots and tubers; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit
Primary Diet: omnivore