Natural predators have been virtually eliminated from most of the range of P. hamadryas. However, it is thought that the higher levels of social organization seen in hamadryas baboons are a response to past predation. Bands undoubtedly help the baboons to defend themselves against predators, by increasing the number of adult animals to ward off attacks. Because bands and clans tend to congregate at just before reaching watering locations, a place where predators are likely to hide, such a function seems plausible. Also, troops seem to be a side effect of the desire of these animals to sleep on elevated rocks or cliffs. On explanation for this sleeping arrangement is that it inhibits access of predators to the animals. The availability of sleeping sites appears to be the principle limitation on the range of these animals.
- leopards (Panthera pardus)
- Verreaux's eagles (Aquila verreauxi)