Phrynosoma cornutum is listed as a threatened species in Texas and Okalahoma. The numbers of the Texas Horned Lizard have declined for several reasons: the collection of the lizard as a pet, the invasion of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and loss of habitat (Donaldson, et al 1994). The change in land use has taken away homes from the lizards, and the use of pesticides on the harvester ants has depleted their main food source (Donaldson, et al 1994). Texas Parks and Wildlife along with other conservation groups are studying aspects of the Texas Horned Lizard as to protect it from any further negative human impact.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern