Major predators include seals, sea lions, whales, dolphins, and other large bony fish. Human fishing operations play a significant role in pollock mortality, and there is speculation that overfishing may be causing the decrease in age at maturity observed by Cargnelli et al. (1999). Adults and juveniles exhibit schooling as an anti-predator defense. Rangeley and Kramer (1998) found that schooling and habitat selection are important anti-predator strategies in juveniles; juveniles spend more time in algae beds in the presence of a predator. Juveniles that remain in the open were more likely to aggregate in the presence of a predator.