IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category Year Assessed
Data Deficient Red List Criteria Version
Grubbs, R.D., Snelson, F., Piercy, A., Rosa, R.S. & Furtado, M. Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority) Contributor/s Justification
is a coastal marine and estuarine species with a wide distribution in the Western Atlantic south from New Jersey (USA), through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, south to southeastern Brazil. It is associated with sand flats, seagrass beds and coral reefs at 0 to 53 m depth and is common to locally abundant in some regions. The species is taken as bycatch in various fisheries throughout its range and is harvested in some parts of South America. In some areas it is also an important ecotourism resource. The population appears healthy in the USA and, with no threats apparent, is assessed as Least Concern in that country. However, there is little information available on population trends and the impacts of fishing throughout the rest of its range and it is thus assessed as Data Deficient globally. Increasing artisanal fishing pressure in some regions of Brazil (which may mirror increases in other parts of South America) is of concern and catch monitoring in countries such as Brazil and Venezuela are a priority. Impacts on its inshore environment (including coral reefs) may also represent a threat.