Mus spicilegus is endemic to Europe, occurring from Lake Neusiedl on the Austro-Hungarian border through Slovakia, Hungary, Moldova, and Ukraine, extending eastwards to as far as Rostov in the extreme south-west of Russia. In the Mediterranean region, it occurs in Serbia and Bulgaria, with an isolated subpopulation occurring in Montenegro, Greece and Albania. This subpopulation has a fragmented range within a very narrow strip of coastal habitat, and there are only three known localities (B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006). It typically occurs from sea level to 200 m (Macholán 1999).