The flowers attract various kinds of bees and flower flies. In sunnier areas, the flowers may also attract the introduced butterfly Pieris rapae (Cabbage White). Apparently the seeds are little-used by birds and mammalian herbivores rarely bother the foliage, possibly because they're repelled by its garlic-like scent. There also appears to be few native insects that feed on the foliage and other parts of this plant. At the present time, ecologists in Switzerland are examining the insect pests of Garlic Mustard in the Old World to determine if any of them are suitable for introduction into the New World. Two species of leaf beetles appear to be the best candidates for biological control.