Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda to the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and southern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands; dubious records from the Canary Islands, Cape Verde and South Africa (Ref. 1496, 1953, 6572) are discussed by Heemstra (Ref. 6512).
- Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12
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