A neotenic, pelagic species inhabiting inshore and estuarine waters, over sand, mud and eel-grass (Ref. 4343). Feed on zooplankton, especially copepods, cirripede larvae and mysids (Ref. 4343). Spawn in summer in empty bivalve shells (Ref. 35388). Probably migrate to deeper water to spawn during summer (Ref. 57814). Adults die after breeding (Ref. 4696) which does not qualify as a manifestation of semelparity but abbreviate iteroparity according to a recent study (Ref. 81039). Eggs are pear-shaped (Ref. 4696).