Generally in neritic waters over the continental shelf (Ref. 5217). Adults ascend rivers (Ref. 26938). Juveniles abundant in brackish estuaries with muddy bottoms, near sandy beaches and on seagrass beds (Ref. 5217). Form fast-moving schools, although larger fish may be solitary. Feed on smaller fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates (Ref. 5521). Often grunts or croaks when caught. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).