More commonly found in shallow tidal areas with muddy bottoms and brackish waters, tolerating a wide range of salinities (virtually fresh to fully saline or hypersaline). Found only in spring and summer in the tidal portion of the Ochlockonee River, Florida. Feed mostly on Mysis and copepods, also small fishes, gastropods and isopods. Breed off North Carolina from late April to mid-July, perhaps through to August. Used to some extent to make anchovy paste (Ref. 189).
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