Studies on the diet of this species in various localities in the North Atlantic have shown the pelagic character of its food. During its first two years of existence, it inhabits mostly coastal waters where it feeds mainly on plankton like appendicularians and crustaceans. After this coastal period, it migrates to the open sea and its food remains pelagic, although prey is larger and consists of euphausiids, fishes and cephalopods (Ref. 42118). Parasites of the species include 6 trematodes, 2 nematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan; Hemiuris levinseni (trematode) being the most common, followed by Echinorhynchus gadi (Ref. 5951). See also Ref. 8999.