Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda (Anderson, pers. comm.) to southeastern Brazil, including the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Most abundant around the Antilles, the Bahamas and off southern Florida.
- Allen, G.R. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
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