Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to the eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (ocellatus) and Australia (neopilchardus); Chile (sagax) and California (caeruleus); and, Japan (melanostictus) (Ref. 36641).
- Parrish, J.D., R. Serra and W.S. Grant 1989 The monotypic sardines, Sardina and Sardinops: their taxonomy, distribution, stock structure, and zoogeography. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:2019-2036. (Ref. 27267)
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