Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Mozambique and east to the Phoenix Islands, north to Japan, south to Australia. Probably including all the islands of the tropical Indian Ocean.
- Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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