Indo-Pacific : Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4919) to Panama, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands. Eastern Pacific: Baja California and the Gulf of California to Panama (Ref. 9349, 11482).
- Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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