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Aeromonas is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic rod that morphologically resembles members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Fourteen species of Aeromonas have been described, most of which have been associated with human diseases. The most important pathogens are A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii biovar sobria. The organisms are ubiquitous in fresh and brackish water.
Two major diseases associated with Aeromonas are gastroenteritis and wound infections, with or without bacteremia. Gastroenteritis typically occurs after the ingestion of contaminated water or food, whereas wound infections result from exposure to contaminated water.
- opportunistic systemic disease in immunocompromised patients
- diarrheal disease in otherwise healthy individuals, and
- wound infections
Differential diagnosis caution
If automated machines are not using the most updated database, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica may be mistaken as Aeromonas salmonicida. Leeches have been implicated in the transmission of Aeromonas infections to humans.
Gastrointestinal disease in children is usually an acute, severe illness, whereas that in adults tends to be chronic diarrhea. Severe Aeromonas gastroenteritis resembles shigellosis, with blood and leukocytes in the stool. Acute diarrheal disease is self limited, and only supportive care is indicated in affected patients.
It is necessary for patients with chronic diahreal disease or systemic infection. Aeromonas species are resistant to penicillins, most cephalosporins, and erythromycin. Ciprofloxacin is consistently active against their strains in the U.S. and Europe, but resistant cases have before been reported in Asia.
The name Aeromonas derives from:
Greek noun aer, aeros (ἀήρ, ἀέρος), air, gas; Greek feminine gender noun monas (μονάς / μονάδα), unit, monad; New Latin feminine gender noun Aeromonas, gas(-producing) monad.
- Martinez-Murcia AJ, Benlloch S, Collins MD (July 1992). "Phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing: lack of congruence with results of DNA-DNA hybridizations". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42 (3): 412–21. doi:10.1099/00207713-42-3-412. PMID 1380289. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=1380289.
- Aeromonas entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (2): 590-2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/47/2/590.]