Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This species breeds in ephemeral ditches, including roadside ditches and pasture ponds, in addition to pond cypress and black gum habitat. The flatwoods salamander is a fall breeder. Adults typically migrate to breeding sites during rains from mid-October through early February (Means et al.1996). Courtship has not been observed, but it is believed that individuals court on land. Ambystoma cinglatum is one of only two species (see A. opacum) of mole salamanders that are known to court and deposit eggs in terrestrial habitat. Individuals leave the breeding site near their entry point after a period of approximately 38 days. Females deposit 1-34 clumped eggs at or near the water's edge in depressions. As in A. opacum, hatching is triggered as rains that fill the pools inundate the eggs. Females from populations in southern South Carolina and into Georgia have been shown to deposit eggs singly under logs, leaf litter, and sphagnum mats (Anderson and Williamson 1976).
- Anderson, J. D., and Williamson, G. K. (1976). ''Terrestrial mode of reproduction in Ambystoma cingulatum.'' Herpetologica, 32, 214-221.
- Means, D. B., Palis, J. G., and Baggett, M. (1996). ''Effects of slash pine silviculture on a Florida population of Flatwoods Salamander.'' Conservation Biology, 10(2), 426-437.
- Palis, J.G. (1995). ''Larval growth, development, and metamorphosis of Ambystoma cingulatum on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida.'' The Florida Scientist, 58(44), 352-358.
- Palis, J.G. (1996). ''Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum Cope). Element stewardship abstract.'' Natural Areas Resource Journal, 16, 49-54.
- Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
- Ware, S.C., Frost, C. and Doerr, P.D. (1993). ''Southern mixed hardwood forest: the former longleaf pine forest.'' Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States. W.H.Martin, S.G. Boyce, and A.C. Echternacht, eds., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 447-493.
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