Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The cause(s) of the apparent declines observed in populations of all taxa within the L. aurea complex are unclear (Gillespie et al. 1995). Investigations of disappearances among the group have primarily focused on L. aurea and L. castanea and two major directions in research have been pursued: the role of increased ultraviolet radiation; and the impact of the introduced fish, Gambusia (Mahony 1999). It is also possible that disease, such as a viral infection or chytrid fungus, may have contributed to the decline of some species (W. Osborne pers. comm.).
As for L. aurea , L. raniformis have disappeared from sites where Gambusia are present (Mahony 1999; W. Osborne pers. comm.). The dates of introduction of Gambusia to many regions are not well documented and this lack of information has hampered research into declines (Mahony 1999).
- Brook, A.J. (1979). Atlas of Frogs of Tasmania. Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne.
- Ehmann, H. and White, A. (1997). ''23. Southern Bell Frog, Litoria raniformis.'' Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation. H. Ehmann, eds., Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW, Sydney South, Australia, 194-200.
- Gillespie, G. and Hero, J.-M. (1999). ''Potential impact of introduced fish and fish translocations on Australian amphibians.'' Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. A. Campbell, eds., Environment Australia, Canberra, 131â"144.
- Gillespie, G.R., Osborne, W.S. and Mc Elhinney, N.A. (1995). The Conservation Status of Frogs in the Australian Alps: A Review. A Report to the Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
- Goldingay, R., and Lewis, B. (1999). ''Development of a conservation strategy for the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea in the Illawarra region of New South Wales.'' Australian Zoologist, 31, 376-387.
- Hero, J.-M., Littlejohn, M., and Marantelli, G. (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria.
- Littlejohn, M.J. (1963). ''Frogs of the Melbourne area.'' Victorian Naturalist, 79, 296-304.
- Littlejohn, M.J. (1982). ''Amphibians of Victoria.'' Victorian Yearbook, 85, 1-11.
- Mahony, M. (1999). ''Review of the declines and disappearances within the bell frog species group (Litoria aurea species group) in Australia.'' Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. A. Campbell, eds., Environment Australia, Canberra, 81-93.
- Martin, A.A. and Tyler, M.J. (1978). ''The Introduction into Western Australia of the frog Limnodynastes tasmaniensis Gunther.'' Australian Zoologist, 19(3), 321-325.
- Morgan, L. A., and Buttemer, W. A. (1996). ''Predation by the non-native fish Gambusia holbrooki on small Litoria aurea and L. dentata tadpoles.'' Australian Zoologist, 30(2), 143-149.
- Osborne, W. S., Littlejohn, M. J., and Thomson, S. A. (1996). ''Former distribution and apparent disappearance of the Litoria aurea complex.'' Australian Zoologist, 30(2), 190-198.
- Tyler, M.J. (1997). The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. Wildlife Australia, Canberra, ACT.