Order Hymenoptera is one of the largest insect orders and contains sawflies, bees, wasps, parasitic wasps, and ants. They can be found throughout the world. They have compound eyes, antennae, and usually include three ocelli (simple eyes). Eusociality can be seen in many species, especially bees. The bees have a ‘caste’ system of varying levels, with worker bees that defend and gather food for the colony. Bees help pollinate crops and many other Hymenoptera species feed on insect pests. The eusocial species are sexually dimorphic and exhibit polymorphism. They undergo complete metamorphosis (holometabolism). The grub-like larvae typically feed on leaves. Some species have two pairs of membranous wings and mandibles for chewing. The hind wings have small hooks called hamuli that connect to the front wings. Hymenoptera can be seen in the fossil record as far back as the Triassic.
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