Order Hemiptera are known as the “true” bugs. A few of their common species include: cicadas, white flies, aphids, leafhoppers, shield bugs, pond skaters, and more. They are one of the largest insect orders with about 82, 000 species found throughout the world. They are usually about one millimeter to fifteen centimeters in length. Their front pair of wings are leathery and thick while their back pair of wings are membranous. Only a few species are wingless. They have slender rostrums (beaks), which are usually used to suck sap out of plants. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. They have long five-segmented antennae and compound eyes. They have scent glands that give off a foul odor when the insect feels threatened. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis, which means they start as an egg, have a nymph stage, and then molt several times to become an adult. They can be found in the fossil record as far back as the Early Permian.
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