Although not globally threatened with extinction, some gentoo penguin colonies have declined (1). While those on the Antarctic Peninsula appear to be increasing overall, populations on sub-Antarctic islands may have decreased considerably (1). For example, populations on Bird Island (South Georgia) have decreased by around 67 percent since 1980 (1). In the past, some colonies were affected by the collection of eggs for human consumption and the hunting of adults for their oil (2). Today, possible reasons behind population declines include local pollution, interaction with fisheries, and disturbance by humans (1); colonies on Kerguelen Island and Possession Island are said to have been disturbed by the presence of scientific bases (2).
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