The hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana, Gray 1865) is the rarest and least known among the five species of otters occurring in Asia. It is endemic to South Asia. The type specimen came from Sumatra. Once believed to be extinct, the hairy nosed otter has been rediscovered from many parts of Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Viet Nam and Cambodia. Historically, it occurred from southern Indochina to Malaysia (Sebastain 1994, 1995) and Thailand (Lekagul and Mcneely 1988, Kanchanasaka 2000). In Thailand it has been reported from Phru Toa Daeng Peat Swamp Forest (Kanchanasaka et al. 1998). From Viet Nam it has also been reported from U Minh Thuong Nature Reserve in Mekong Delta (Nguyen et al. 2001, Nguyen 2005, Nguyen et al. 2007) and from Cambodia it has been reported from Tonle Sap wetlands (Long 2000, Poole 2003, Olsson 2007). It has been reported from Malaysia at Terengganu in 2003 and from Maur in 1995. It has been recently reported in Sumatra, Indonesia (Lubis 2005). Historical records of its occurrence comes from the coast off of Penang Island (Harrison 1984), and from accidental road kill in Brunei in 1997 (Sasaki 2006). Historically it has also been reported from Myanmar as evident from the skin present in the British museum. From this, the possible range of hairy-nosed otter can be worked out which is eastward from Northeast India (Indo-china), Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Lao PDR, Brunei, Malaysia and Indonesia.