Pygoscelis papua has a circumpolar breeding distribution that ranges in latitude from Cape Tuxon on the Antarctic Peninsula (65Â°16'S) to the Crozet Islands (46Â°00'S) (Lynch 2012). The three most important locations, containing 80% of the global population, are the Falkland Islands (Malvinas): 115,327 individuals (Clausen and Huin 2003), South Georgia: 98,867 individuals (South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands) (Trathan et al. 1996) and the Antarctic Peninsula (incl. South Shetland Island): 94,751 individuals (Lynch et al. Unpublished). Other breeding sites include Kerguelen Island: 30,000-40,000 individuals (Weimerskirch et al. 1988) and Crozet Island: 9,000 individuals (Jouventin 1994) in the French Southern Territories, Heard Island (to Australia): 16,574 individuals (Woehler 1993), South Orkney Islands: 10,760 individuals (Lynch et al. Unpublished), Macquarie Island (Australia): 3,800 individuals, South Sandwich Islands: 1,572 individuals (Convey et al. 1999) and Marion Island (South Africa): 1,100 (Crawford et al. 2009). Small numbers are also found on Prince Edward Island (South Africa) and on Martillo Island and Islas de los Estados in Argentina (Bingham 1998, Ghys et al. 2008). Populations on sub-Antarctic islands may have decreased substantially in the pastâat Bird Island, South Georgia by c.67% in 25 years (J. P. Croxall in litt. 1999), at Marion Island by 11% over the period 1994-1997 (Barnes 2000) and on the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) by c.45% from 1932-33 to 1995-95 (Bingham 1998)âbut, now appear stable (Trathan et al. 1996, Bingham 2002, Clausen and Huin 2003, Crawford et al. 2009, Forcada and Trathan 2009). Populations may still be declining on Heard Island and on Kerguelen Island (LescroÃ«l and Bost 2006). Populations are increasing at most sites where they are monitored on the Antarctic Peninsula, particularly at those sites at the southern extent of their breeding range (Lynch et al. 2008, Lynch 2012). Populations also appear to be increasing on the South Orkney (Forcada and Trathan 2009) and South Sandwich Islands (Convey et al. 1999). The global population was estimated at 314,000 breeding pairs (Woehler 1993), however, a more recent estimate of 387,000 pairs suggests that the population may be increasing, particularly in the south of its range (Lynch 2012).