Widespread in arid regions of North Africa (north of 17ÂºN) from Morocco and Mauritania to Egypt and Somalia, to along the northern fringes of the Sahara Desert. Also present across the Arabian Peninsula eastwards to Pakistan (68ÂºE) and north-west to Israel and Jordan. A recent record for Syria is the first confirmation of their presence in this country (Serra et al. in press). Suspected historical expansion of distribution area is likely due to desertification, compensated by competition with the red fox due to new human settlements. It seems to avoid the extreme arid regions in the middle of the Sahara, and the Arabian Empty Quarter, being more abundant on the fringes, in mountain massifs and near oases.