Xanthomyza phrygia is endemic to south-east Australia, where it now has an extremely patchy distibution within a range stretching from south-east Queensland to central Victoria. Most sightings come from a few sites in north-eastern Victoria, along the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, New South Wales, and the central coast of New South Wales. It has become extinct in South Australia and has declined to vagrant status in central and western Victoria, and Gippsland. Historically, the species occurred from Adelaide to 100 km north of Brisbane within 300 km of the coast, and was formerly very numerous with 'great' or 'immense' numbers recorded in the 19th century (Higgins et al. 2001). Birds concentrate at a small number of sites when breeding, but numbers fluctuate greatly between years and sites, and movements outside the breeding season are poorly understood. Key breeding areas are the Chiltern section of ChilternâMt Pilot National Park, in northeastern Victoria (Menkhorst 2003), Capertee Valley in central eastern New South Wales and Bundarra-Barraba region in northern NSW (Oliver and Lollback 2010) with a few birds breeding in other areas, such as the Wangaratta-Mansfield region in Victoria, Warrumbungle National Park, Pilliga forests, the Mudgee-Wollar region, and the Hunter and Clarence Valleys (NSW Scientific Committee 2010). In 1997 the population in New South Wales was estimated at a maximum of 1,000 birds but far fewer birds have been recorded since, with maxima of just 40 there in 2009 and 80+ in the Hunter Valley in 2012 (BirdLife Australia 2012), while in Victoria there are probably fewer than ten pairs (Garnett et al. 2011). While the species has regional variation in calls (Powys 2010), banded birds have been recorded moving between all main sites so the species is considered to have a single subpopulation (Garnett et al. 2011).