Physiology and Biochemistry
Much has been written on the biochemistry of bracken because of its toxicity (see under Toxicity). As noted under Life History, Pteridium aquilinum was the first species in which the production of antheridiogens (hormones that cause gametophytes to become exclusively male, thus facilitating cross-fertilization) was detailed. Gametophytes of the species also have been model systems for the in vitro study of gametophyte growth and development, as well as the induction of apogamy and apospory (e.g., Whittier, 1966b, c; Sobota and Partanan, 1967; Raghavan, 1969, 1970
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