The species is in decline over part of its range (e.g. Chesapeake Bay), but sustains viable fisheries in others (e.g., the Northern Gulf of Mexico).
- Kennedy, V., R. I. E. Newell & A. F. Eble (editors). 1996. The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea virginica. Maryland Sea Grant, College Park, Maryland. 734 pp.
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