The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Basford, D.J., Eleftheriou, A. & Raffaelli, D., (1989). The epifauna of the northern North-Sea (56-°-61°N). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 69, 387-407. External link.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Mackie, A.M., (1998). Preliminary studies on the chemical defences of British octocorals Alcyonium digitatum and Pennatula phosphorea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A- Physiology, 86, 629-632. External link.
  • Manuel, R.L., (1988). British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press.[Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 18.] External link.
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • Nicol, J.A., (1958). Observations on the luminescence of Pennatula phosphorea, with a note on the luminescence of Virgularia mirabilis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 37, 551-563. External link.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Williams, G. (2015). Pennatula phosphorea. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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