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BiologyFound in bays, in sea grass beds, kelp beds, and near reefs on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 12951). Digs in the sand to feed (Ref. 5227). Feeds on small fishes, crabs, clams, and other benthic invertebrates (Ref. 37955). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail.