Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
“37. Balanophyllia chnous Squires, 1962
Plate 16, figs. 1-3
Thecopsammia sp. Gardiner, 1929a, pp. 126, 127.
Balanophyllia sp. Gardiner, 1929a, pp. 126, 127.
Balanophyllia chnous Squires, 1962b, pp. 13, 21, 22, pL. 1, fig. 17, pl. 2, figs. 1-3; 1969, pp. 17, 18, pl. 6, map 2.
Description. In the following the holotype is redescribed. Corallum ceratoid, becoming cylindrical toward calice, firmly attached to substrate by pedicel 6.2 mm in diameter. Calice elliptical, 12.1 x 9.3 mm in diameter; corallum 30.4 mm tall. Epitheca covering porous synapticulotheca to within 3 mm of calice. Epitheca heavily encrusted with Bryozoa, Foraminifera, serpulids, and sponges. Costae not apparent but may have been present before epitheca formed. Sixty-six septa hexamerally arranged in five incomplete cycles. S1 largest septa, slightly exsert, and extending to columella. S2 slightly smaller, not reaching columella. Remaining septa arranged in Pourtalès plan, those adjacent to S1 and S2 large and usually extending to columella. Development of S5 irregular within systems: the two lateral systems without S5, but the four systems adjacent to lateral edges with variable number of S5. Three half systems with all four S5. Inner edges of S1, 2 straight and entire; those of S3-5 irregular to laciniate. Septal granules prominent, as large as septal thickness in height. Short, low carinae present on inner edges of larger septa. Columella elongate and spongy.
Discussion. B. chnous is the only dendrophylliid known from off continental Antarctica. The only specimens known were reported by Gardiner [1929a]as Thecopsammia sp. and Balanophyllia sp. He stated that the specimens were collected at Terra Nova station 91 (off New Zealand) at the beginning of his species account and at Terra Nova station 191 (Bay of Whales, Ross Sea) at the end of the species account. The original label reads 191. However, Gardiner also validly reported specimens of other species from Terra Nova station 91 in the same paper. If there was a labeling error, it might explain the subsequent lack of records of this species in the Ross Sea, even though several Eltanin stations have been made in the proximity of the type-locality.
B. chnous differs from B. malouinensis by its exsert septa; smaller size at maturity; and longer, more slender corallum.
Types. The holotype (number 1922.214.171.124) and five paratypes (numbers 19126.96.36.199-24, 26-27) are deposited at the British Museum. They were presumably collected at Terra Nova station 191. Type-locality: Bay of Whales, Ross Sea; 355-457 m.
Distribution. Known only from type-locality (Map 13).”