Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Proceratophrys melanopogon is a medium-sized frog (SVL 34.9-49.9 mm in males and 40.7-62.1 mm in females; Prado and Pombal 2008), which is closely related to P. appendiculata (Amaro et al. 2009), to which it was until recently considered a synonym (Heyer et al. 1990). The snout is rounded, tips of fingers slightly to noticeably swollen, not disked; fingers without webbing or fringes, sides of fingers smooth or with slight ridges; basal finger subarticular tubercles moderately well developed, distal tubercles less well developed, single; well-developed supratympanic fold, sides of body areolate with glandular warts; dorsal texture smooth or finely granular with scattered warty tubercles; irregular dark blotches. one from between eyes to past shoulders, second just past sacrum to coalesced into one large oblong blotch (Heyer et al. 1990; Prado and Pombal 2008). Izecksohn et al. (2005) and Prado and Pombal (2008) described the osteology. Prado and Pombal (2008) also re-described the holotype and presented several details about phenetic relationships and type specimens.
The tadpole's body is ovoid in dorsal view, and slightly depressed in lateral view. The eyes are dorsal and oriented dorsolaterally. The nares are oval with a small marginal rim, dorsally positioned, located closer to the eyes than the tip of the snout, directed upward. A single sinistral spiracle, directed posterodorsally, with inner wall present as a slight ridge. The vent tube is short, dextral, with right wall displaced dorsally. The dorsal fin originates at the body–tail junction and is widely arched and higher than the ventral fin. The oral disc is ventral, and laterally emarginated. The marginal papillae are conical, disposed in a single row laterally, alternated posteriorly, with a wide anterior gap, which is slightly shorter than A-1. LTRF 2(2)/3(1). Anterior jaw sheath widely arched, posterior jaw sheath V-shaped and curved inward. In formalin, the body wall is transparent in dorsal view, with small, scattered light-gray melanophores along the body. Broad transverse stripes on the caudal musculature in dorsal view (Provete et al. 2013). Provete et al. (2013) thoroughly described the larval internal oral features of this species and compared it with P. moratoi and P. cururu.