endemic to a single nation
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the eastern United States and extends from Pennsylvania, Kentucky, southern Illinois, and southeastern Missouri to eastern Mississippi, southern Alabama, Georgia, and the Florida Panhandle (Lemmon et al. 2007).
Catalog Number: USNM 3592
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Locality: Carlisle, Cumberland, Pennsylvania, United States, North America
- Syntype: Baird, S. F. 1854. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 7 (2): 60.
Habitat and Ecology
Comments: Habitat includes open and wooded areas such as meadows, moist forests, bottomland swamps, and the vicinity of ponds, bogs, and marshes; this is mainly an upland frog in the north, but it also inhabits lowlands in the south (Conant and Collins 1991). Breeding sites include shallow ponds, flooded woodlands and pastures, and rainwater pools in ditches, fields, and open woods; eggs adhere to sticks and grass (Mount 1975, Redmond and Scott 1996).
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).
100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. This frog is common to abundant in much of its range.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2004Least Concern (LC)
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. This frog is common to abundant in much of its range.
Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10 percent over 10 years or three generations. Many secure populations exist throughout the range.
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)
Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10 percent over 10 years or three generations. Many secure populations exist throughout the range.
Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%
Degree of Threat: Low
Comments: No major threats are known. Clear-cutting and urbanization probably impact local populations.
Global Protection: Very many (>40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed
Comments: No conservation measures are needed. Many occurrences are in protected areas.
Upland Chorus Frog
The upland chorus frog (Pseudacris feriarum) is a species of chorus frog found in the United States. It was recently separated from the Western chorus frog, (Pseudacris triseriata), being identified as an individual species rather than a subspecies.
Upland chorus frogs are secretive, nocturnal frogs, and are rarely seen (or heard) except immediately after rains. They are an almost entirely terrestrial species, and found in a variety of habitats, but usually moderately moist, vegetated areas, not far from a permanent water source. Like most frogs, they are insectivorous. Breeding occurs throughout the year, but most frequently during the cooler, more rainy periods from November to March. Eggs are laid in clusters of 60 or so, in water and attached to vegetation. The female can lay upwards of 1,000 eggs at a time.
The upland chorus frog is listed as a protected species in the state of New Jersey, primarily due to habitat destruction. Because of its restrictive habitat preferences, this species is declining in several states, particularly in areas where roadside ditches and other ephemeral pools are being drained or destroyed for new developments.
- Hammerson (2004). Pseudacris feriarum. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes a range map and a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
- IUCN RangeMap: Pseudacris feriarum
- Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries: Upland Chorus Frog
- Frogs and Toads of Georgia: Upland Chorus Frog
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: A molecular phylogeny of Pseudacris based on mtDNA data (Moriarty and Cannatella 2004) revealed four strongly supported clades within Pseudacris: (1) A West Coast Clade containing regilla and cadaverina, (2) a Fat Frog Clade including ornata, streckeri, and illinoensis, (3) a Crucifer Clade consisting of crucifer and ocularis, and (4) a Trilling Frog Clade containing all other Pseudacris. Within the Trilling Frog Clade, brimleyi and brachyphona form the sister group to the Nigrita Clade: nigrita, feriarum, triseriata, kalmi, clarkii, and maculata. The Nigrita Clade shows geographic division into three clades: (1) populations of maculata and triseriata west of the Mississippi River and Canadian populations, (2) southeastern United States populations of feriarum and nigrita, and (3) northeastern United States populations of feriarum, kalmi, and triseriata. Moriarty and Cannatella (2004) found that subspecific epithets for crucifer (crucifer and bartramiana) and nigrita (nigrita and verrucosa) are uninformative, and they therefore discouraged recognition of these subspecies. They concluded that further study is needed to determine if illinoensis warrants status as a distinct species. Molecular data were consistent with retention of regilla, cadaverina, ocularis, and crucifer in the genus Pseudacris.
Using mtDNA samples from a large number of localities throughout North America, Lemmon et al. (2007) elucidated the phylogenetic relationships and established the geographic ranges of the trilling chorus frogs (Pseudacris). They redefined the ranges of several taxa, including P. maculata, P. triseriata, and P. feriarum; found strong evidence for recognizing P. kalmi as a distinct species; and discovered a previously undetected species in the south-central United States (now known as P. fouquettei; Lemmon et al. 2008). Based on mtDNA data, Pseudacris maculata and P. clarkii did not emerge as distinct, monophyletic lineages but, given the degree of morphological and behavioral divergence between the taxa, Lemmon et al. (2007) chose to recognize them as separate species, until further data suggest otherwise.