IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

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Humerana humeralis (the Bhamo frog) is an uncommonly reported ranid frog known from points around a wide area between northeastern India, northern Myanmar to eastern Bangladesh, and the tip of southeastern Nepal. It is thought to occur more widely than the few current records suggest, presumably in regions between collection sites, for e.g. in Bhutan.  It has not been found in Myanmar since the type series was collected (from Bhamò and Teinzò) by Italian explorer/naturalist Leonardo Fea in an 1887 expedition, and it is considered rare in Nepal, but it is abundant in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh states of India (Hussain et al. 2007; Frost 2016; van Dijk 2016).  

This is a large dull olive colored frog, with greenish flanks and black spots/marbling on the head and limbs.  It has bright yellow coloring on its upper jaw and on its dorsolateral folds along its back.  Males measure about 60-72 mm in snout vent length, and females slightly larger at 62-76 mm (Hussain et al. 2007).  The Bhamo frog has a large head, with distinct tympani.  It is distinguished by the humeral gland at the base of the forelimb.  Boulenger (1893) first described Humerana humeralis (as Rana humeralis) from Myanmar; the more detailed description of Hussain et al. (2007) from India closely matches.  

The Bhamo frog inhabits forests below 500 m asl; it is known from in riparian areas, still waters and flood zones.  It especially likes open areas in grasslands, marshes and woodland.  In winter, the Bhamo frog is dormant, burying itself in moist, shaded leaf litter.  In India, monsoon floods bring these frogs out in large numbers to breed, at which time they congregate on tree branches that overhang the water.  Hussain et al. (2007) found H. humeralis to be the most abundant species in Dibrusaikhowa National Park, in Assam, India, during monsoon season.  Peak breeding takes place during rainy season, between April-June.  Males call for females while partly submerged in shallow temporary waters, and amplexus takes place while floating.  Females lay eggs near the banks in shallow water.

The population of H. humeralis is believed large, but slowly decreasing mostly as a result of deforestation (Frost 2016; van Dijk 2016; Hussain et al. 2007).

The record from Bangladesh was originally incorrectly identified as Rana tytleri (van Dijk et al. 2016).


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© Dana Campbell

Supplier: Dana Campbell

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